Epaulettes and Shoulder straps
Author: andrefromont/fernandomo Original Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/andrefromont/2177610106/ Lisence: Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0
Author: giselap Original Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/giselapeters/405088533/ Lisence: Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0
Epaulette, a French word meaning "little shoulder", are a type of ornamental shoulder piece or decoration used as rank by the military. It was a popular military garment in late 19th century and trough out 20th century. Today, epaulettes have mostly been replaced shoulder straps, which is sewn into the shoulder seam and the end buttoned like an epaulette. Shoulder straps are also found on civilian clothing that derives from military uniforms such as the trench coat, the safari jacket and other garments.
Franco-Prussian War 1870— 1871
Death toll: 774 800 deaths 
2.The Encyclopedia of Fashion. From 1840 to the 1980s. Georgina Ohara